70 years ago, on October 1, 1949, following the complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of People’s Republic of China (PRC).
The Chinese revolution was a triumph of the people against the feudal and colonial forces in the country. Before the revolution, the Chinese society was bowed down by stark inequality and poverty, with a rich few controlling almost all resources. At the time of the collapse of 2000-year-old Qing dynasty in 1912, the society was marked by massive inequality. According to data, only ten percent of the agricultural population of China possessed as much as two-thirds of the land. After World War I in 1919, the country witnessed the May Four Movement, an anti-imperialist struggle, which was considered to be the birth of communism in China. In July 1921, the Communist Party of China was formed by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao. The communist party soon gained prominence in the country. After defeating the warlords jointly with communists, the Chiang Kai-shek government of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party of China) launched a massive repression against the communists. More than 5000 workers and communists were killed in the Shanghai massacre of 1927. To counter the repression, the communists re-organized its bases in the countryside, and thus began the long march, a strategic retreat by the party’s Red Army. It was during the long march that Mao Tse Tung became the head of the party. The war of liberation spearheaded by CPC strengthened after the defeat of Japanese occupation forces in World War II. In 1949, CPC was able to defeat the Kuomintang forces, which then escaped to Taiwan. The Chinese revolution and the ideas of Mao, provided a source of inspiration and energy to national liberation and anti-imperialist struggles across the world.
Here you can read the text of the speech delivered by Chairman Mao on October 1. 1949 on the occasion of the founding of the PRC, published in Marxists.org